C# How to: Deep copy objects using NetDataContractSerializer

Article purpose

This article will illustrate how to create deep copies of an by making use of the implemented in the form of an extension method with generic type support.

Sample source code

This article is accompanied by a sample source code Visual Studio project which is available for download .

Shallow Copy and Deep Copy

When creating a copy of an in memory, the type of copy can be described as either a shallow copy or a deep copy. The class defines the method, which performs a bit by bit copy of an ’s value type members. In the case of reference type members the method will create a copy of the reference, but not a copy of the being referenced. Creating a copy of an using the method will thus result in copies and the original still referencing the same member in memory when that is a reference type. The method performs a shallow copy when invoked.

A deep copy of an results in copies and the original not referencing the same reference type member in memory.

This article is a follow up article on: . When using being have to be decorated with any number of attributes which aid and . An object’s definition has to at the very least specify the Serializable attribute, if not attempting results in a runtime exception.

The advantage of implementing deep copy operations by making use of a can be argued around not having to specify . Although, as is the case with , only objects that define a can be without specifying any additional attributes.

Example custom data type

The code snippet listed below illustrates several user/custom defined data types. Notice the complete absence of any code attributes, as usually required for successful serialization/deserialization. Also pay attention to the private member variables, being an and user defined reference type defined towards the end of this snippet.

For the sake of convenience I overload the , returning a string representation of an object’s member values.

public class CustomDataType 
{ 
     private CustomEnum enumMember = CustomEnum.EnumVal1; 
     private ExampleReferenceType referenceType = new ExampleReferenceType(); 

public void RefreshReferenceType() { referenceType.Refresh(); }
private int intMember = 0; public int IntMember { get { return intMember; } set { intMember = value; } }
private string stringMember = String.Empty; public string StringMember { get { return stringMember; } set { stringMember = value; } }
private DateTime dateTimeMember = DateTime.MinValue; public DateTime DateTimeMember { get { return dateTimeMember; } set { dateTimeMember = value; } }
public override string ToString() { return "IntMember: " + IntMember + ", DateTimeMember: " + DateTimeMember.ToString() + ", StringMember: " + stringMember + ", EnumMember: " + enumMember.ToString() + ", ReferenceType: " + referenceType.ToString(); }
public void SetEnumValue(CustomEnum enumValue) { enumMember = enumValue; } }
public class ExampleReferenceType { private DateTime createdDate = DateTime.Now;
public void Refresh() { createdDate = DateTime.Now; }
public override string ToString() { return createdDate.ToString("HH:mm:ss.fff"); } }
public enum CustomEnum { EnumVal1 = 2, EnumVal2 = 4, EnumVal3 = 8, EnumVal4 = 16, }

The DeepCopy method – Implementation as an extension method with generic type support

Extension method architecture enables developers to create methods which, from a syntactic and implementation point of view appear to be part of an existing data type. create the perception of being updates or additions, literarily extending a data type as the name implies. do not require access to the source code of the particular types being extended, nor does the implementation thereof require recompilation of the referenced types.

This article illustrates a combined implementation of extending the functionality of . The following code snippet provides the definition.

public static class ExtObject 
{ 
    public static T DeepCopy<T>(this T objectToCopy) 
    {    
        MemoryStream memoryStream = new MemoryStream(); 

NetDataContractSerializer netFormatter = new NetDataContractSerializer();
netFormatter.Serialize(memoryStream, objectToCopy);
memoryStream.Position = 0; T returnValue = (T)netFormatter.Deserialize(memoryStream);
memoryStream.Close(); memoryStream.Dispose();
return returnValue; } }

The DeepCopy method is defined as an by virtue of being a static method of a static class and by specifying the keyword in its parameter definition.

DeepCopy additionally defines the <T> which determines the return value’s type and the type of the parameter objectToCopy.

The method body creates an instance of a object and an object instance of type . When the is invoked the Xml representation of the objectToCopy parameter is written to the specified . In a similar fashion is invoked next, reading the Xml representation from the specified . The returned is cast to the same type as the originally .

Note: :

Serializes and deserializes an instance of a type into XML stream or document using the supplied .NET Framework types.

The NetDataContractSerializer differs from the in one important way: the NetDataContractSerializer includes CLR type information in the serialized XML, whereas the does not. Therefore, the NetDataContractSerializer can be used only if both the serializing and deserializing ends share the same CLR types.

In the scenario illustrated it can be considered safe to use since objects being are only persisted to memory for a few milliseconds and then back to an instance.

The implementation

The DeepCopy method illustrated above appears as a member method to the CustomDataType class created earlier.

static void Main(string[] args) 
{ 
    CustomDataType originalObject = new CustomDataType(); 
    originalObject.DateTimeMember = DateTime.Now; 
    originalObject.IntMember = 42; 
    originalObject.StringMember = "Some random string"; 

CustomDataType deepCopyObject = originalObject.DeepCopy(); deepCopyObject.DateTimeMember = DateTime.MinValue; deepCopyObject.IntMember = 123; deepCopyObject.StringMember = "Something else..."; deepCopyObject.SetEnumValue(CustomEnum.EnumVal3); deepCopyObject.RefreshReferenceType();
Console.WriteLine("originalObject: "); Console.WriteLine(originalObject.ToString()); Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine("deepCopyObject: "); Console.WriteLine(deepCopyObject.ToString()); Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine("Press any key..."); Console.ReadKey(); }

The code snippet listed above is a console application which implements the DeepCopy on objects of type CustomDataType. Modifying the member properties of the second object instance will not result in the first instance properties being modified.

NetDataContractDeepCopy

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Dewald Esterhuizen

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